Advanced syntax in formulas

Let’s write generic formulas using the KeOps syntax.


First, the standard imports:

import torch
from pykeops.torch import Genred
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Choose the storage place for our data : CPU (host) or GPU (device) memory.
device = torch.device('cuda' if torch.cuda.is_available() else 'cpu')

Then, the definition of our dataset:

  • \(p\), a vector of size 2.

  • \(x = (x_i)\), an N-by-D array.

  • \(y = (y_j)\), an M-by-D array.

N = 1000
M = 2000
D = 3

# PyTorch tip: do not 'require_grad' of 'x' if you do not intend to
#              actually compute a gradient wrt. said variable 'x'.
#              Given this info, PyTorch (+ KeOps) is smart enough to
#              skip the computation of unneeded gradients.
p = torch.randn(2,    requires_grad=True , device=device)
x = torch.randn(N, D, requires_grad=False, device=device)
y = torch.randn(M, D, requires_grad=True , device=device)

# + some random gradient to backprop:
g = torch.randn(N, D, requires_grad=True, device=device)

Computing an arbitrary formula

Thanks to the Elem operator, we can now compute \((a_i)\), an N-by-D array given by:

\[a_i = \sum_{j=1}^M (\langle x_i,y_j \rangle^2) (p_0 x_i + p_1 y_j)\]

where the two real parameters are stored in a 2-vector \(p=(p_0,p_1)\).

# Keops implementation.
# Note that Square(...) is more efficient than Pow(...,2)
formula = 'Square((X|Y)) * ((Elem(P, 0) * X) + (Elem(P, 1) * Y))'
variables = ['P = Pm(2)',  # 1st argument,  a parameter, dim 2.
             'X = Vi(3)',  # 2nd argument, indexed by i, dim D.
             'Y = Vj(3)']  # 3rd argument, indexed by j, dim D.

my_routine = Genred(formula, variables, reduction_op='Sum', axis=1)
a_keops = my_routine(p, x, y)

# Vanilla PyTorch implementation
scals = (, y.t())) ** 2  # Memory-intensive computation!
a_pytorch = p[0] * scals.sum(1).view(-1, 1) * x + p[1] * (, y))

# Plot the results next to each other:
for i in range(D):
    plt.subplot(D, 1, i+1)
    plt.plot(a_keops.detach().cpu().numpy()[:40, i], '-', label='KeOps')
    plt.plot(a_pytorch.detach().cpu().numpy()[:40, i], '--', label='PyTorch')
    plt.legend(loc='lower right')
plt.tight_layout() ;


/home/bcharlier/keops/pykeops/examples/pytorch/ UserWarning: Matplotlib is currently using agg, which is a non-GUI backend, so cannot show the figure.
  plt.tight_layout() ;

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 22.527 seconds)

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