High-level interface for the KeOps routines is provided by the pykeops.numpy.LazyTensor and pykeops.torch.LazyTensor modules, which allow users to perform efficient, semi-symbolic computations on large NumPy arrays and PyTorch tensors. As displayed on this website’s front page, these new tensor types can be used with very little overhead in existing Python programs:

# Create two arrays with 3 columns and a (huge) number of lines, on the GPU
import torch
x = torch.randn(1000000, 3, requires_grad=True).cuda()
y = torch.randn(2000000, 3).cuda()

# Turn our Tensors into KeOps symbolic variables:
from pykeops.torch import LazyTensor
x_i = LazyTensor( x[:,None,:] )  # x_i.shape = (1e6, 1, 3)
y_j = LazyTensor( y[None,:,:] )  # y_j.shape = ( 1, 2e6,3)

# We can now perform large-scale computations, without memory overflows:
D_ij = ((x_i - y_j)**2).sum(dim=2)  # Symbolic (1e6,2e6,1) matrix of squared distances
K_ij = (- D_ij).exp()               # Symbolic (1e6,2e6,1) Gaussian kernel matrix
# Note that in fact nothing has been computed yet, everything will be done in the final reduction step

# Now we come back to vanilla PyTorch Tensors or NumPy arrays using
# reduction operations such as .sum(), .logsumexp() or .argmin().
# Here, the kernel density estimation   a_i = sum_j exp(-|x_i-y_j|^2)
# is computed using a CUDA online map-reduce routine that has a linear
# memory footprint and outperforms standard PyTorch implementations
# by two orders of magnitude. All actual computations are performed at this step.
a_i = K_ij.sum(dim=1)  # Genuine torch.cuda.FloatTensor, a_i.shape = (1e6, 1),
g_x = torch.autograd.grad((a_i ** 2).sum(), [x])  # KeOps supports autograd!


Starting with the KeOps 101 tutorial, most examples in our gallery rely on LazyTensors: going through this collection of real-life demos is probably the best way of getting familiar with the KeOps user interface.

Going further, please refer to the GenericLazyTensor (common), numpy.LazyTensor (NumPy) and torch.LazyTensor (PyTorch) API documentations for an exhaustive list of all supported operations.